spanish mastiff

Spanish Mastiff: Large and Powerful

The Spanish Mastiff is a large and ancient dog breed that originated in Asturias and the Cantabrian Mountains in northwestern Spain. The breed’s origins can be traced back thousands of years to the old Molosser dogs, large and powerful canines used by various ancient civilizations.

The Spanish Mastiff, also known as “Mastín Español,” was primarily developed to guard livestock, mainly sheep, from predators, such as wolves and bears. The breed’s size, strength, and protective instincts made them excellent guardians of flocks, ensuring the safety of livestock from wild animals.

Historically, the Spanish Mastiffs were highly valued and cherished by Spanish shepherds.

The breed played a crucial role in protecting livestock, as they fearlessly confronted predators and showed unwavering loyalty to their charges. The dogs often lived outside year-round, enduring harsh weather conditions and independently making critical decisions to safeguard the flock.

Over the centuries, the Spanish Mastiff breed went through a process of natural selection and adapted to the specific needs of its environment. They developed strong muscles, a thick double coat, and a large, imposing size to intimidate predators. These dogs became known for their calm and steady temperament and ability to make decisions independently when protecting their flocks.

In more recent times, as changes occurred in the agricultural and herding practices, the population of Spanish Mastiffs decreased significantly. However, their valuable guarding skills and loyal nature attracted attention, and efforts were made to preserve and promote the breed.

Fortunately, dedicated breeders and enthusiasts initiated a breeding program in the mid-20th century to maintain and improve the Spanish Mastiff breed. They focused on preserving the breed’s traits while addressing specific health concerns. These efforts helped revitalize the population and ensured the continuation of this ancient breed.

In 2001, the Spanish Mastiff was officially recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI), making it an internationally recognized breed. This breed is in the AKC Foundation Stock Service.

Today, the Spanish Mastiff is known for its exceptional guarding abilities and is valued as a loyal, gentle companion and show dog.

Spanish Mastiff Appearance

The Spanish Mastiff is a large and muscular breed. They have a strong, robust body with a rectangular shape. They have a massive, broad head with a pronounced forehead and a thick, rectangular muzzle. Their eyes are small, almond-shaped, and dark in color. They have medium-sized, pendant-shaped ears that hang down beside their head.

The Spanish Mastiff is known for its loose skin, which forms wrinkles around their face and neck. They have a thick, dense, weather-resistant double coat with a dense undercoat and a coarse outer coat. Their fur can be either short or medium in length and comes in various colors, including fawn, brindle, wolf-gray, black, and red. Overall, they have a dignified and powerful appearance.


The Spanish Mastiff is typically known for its calm and gentle temperament. They are generally loyal and protective of their family and can be reserved and wary of strangers. They are known to be independent and intelligent dogs, but they also require firm and consistent training and socialization from a young age to ensure they grow into well-behaved and well-rounded adults. Despite their size and protective nature, they generally get along well with children and other pets if properly introduced and socialized.

Health Concerns

The Spanish Mastiff is generally a healthy and robust breed with a few potential health concerns to be aware of. Some of the common health issues that can affect Spanish Mastiffs include:

  1. Hip Dysplasia: This is a hereditary condition where the hip joints don’t develop properly, causing pain, difficulty in movement, and arthritis. Regular screening and breeding from parents with good hip scores can help minimize the risk.
  2. Elbow Dysplasia: Similar to hip dysplasia, this condition affects the elbows, leading to joint pain and lameness. Regular veterinary check-ups and proper exercise can help manage and prevent the worsening of the situation.
  3. Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus (GDV): Also known as bloat, GDV is a potentially life-threatening condition when the stomach fills with gas or fluid and twists on its axis. It requires immediate veterinary intervention. Feeding small frequent meals, avoiding vigorous exercise after meals, and using elevated feeding bowls can help reduce the risk.
  4. Heart Conditions: Spanish Mastiffs may be prone to certain heart conditions, such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), wherein the heart muscle weakens, leading to an enlarged heart and problems efficiently pumping blood. Regular cardiac screenings can help to identify and manage such conditions.
  5. Entropion: Entropion is a condition where the eyelids roll inwards, causing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea, leading to irritation, redness, and potential ulcers. Surgical correction can be required to avoid long-term damage to the eyes.

Owners and breeders should be aware of these potential health concerns and work with a reputable breeder who tests their breeding dogs for these conditions. Additionally, routine veterinary care, a balanced diet, regular exercise, and a healthy weight can help keep Spanish Mastiffs in good health.

Frequently Asked Questions

Are Spanish Mastiffs good family pets?

Yes, Spanish Mastiffs can make excellent family pets. They are known for their gentle nature, loyalty, and protective instincts. They tend to form strong bonds with their family members and are particularly fond and protective of children.

How big do Spanish Mastiffs get?

Spanish Mastiffs are a giant breed of dog that can grow quite large. Males typically reach a height of 28-35 inches (70-90 cm) at the shoulder and weigh between 140-200 pounds (64-91 kg). Females are slightly smaller, measuring 26-31 inches (65-80 cm) in height and weighing 120-170 pounds (54-77 kg).

Do Spanish Mastiffs require a lot of exercise?

While Spanish Mastiffs are not high-energy dogs, they need regular exercise to maintain their physical and mental well-being. Daily walks and playtime in a secure, spacious area are essential for them. However, it’s important to note that giant breeds should not be excessively exercised during their growth period to prevent potential joint issues.

What is the temperament of a Spanish Mastiff like?

Spanish Mastiffs are known for their calm, patient, and gentle temperament. They are typically very tolerant and have a high level of self-confidence. They are also highly protective and tend to be reserved or aloof around strangers. Early and proper socialization is crucial to ensure they develop into well-balanced, well-mannered dogs.

How much grooming does a Spanish Mastiff require?

The Spanish Mastiff has a thick double coat that protects against the elements. They have a dense, moderately long outer coat and a thick, woolly undercoat. Regular brushing, at least once or twice a week, is necessary to prevent matting and remove loose hair. They shed moderately year-round and heavily when seasonal shedding occurs in spring and fall. They usually only require bathing when necessary, as they have a naturally clean and odor-resistant coat.


In conclusion, the Spanish Mastiff is an extraordinary breed with immense strength, loyalty, and protective instincts. Originating from Spain, this ancient and noble breed has been guarding livestock and homes for centuries. With their impressive size and natural guarding abilities, Spanish Mastiffs have proven invaluable working dogs and cherished family companions. While their size may be intimidating, these gentle giants are known for their calm and patient nature, making them suitable for families with children and other pets.

Their thick, weather-resistant coats make them well-suited for various climates and environments. However, proper socialization, early training, and a firm yet loving owner are essential for their well-being and obedience. With the right care and attention, the Spanish Mastiff can thrive, bringing joy, security, and lifelong companionship to those fortunate enough to have them as a part of their lives.

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply