Docking is removing part of an dogs tail. The primary purpose is to prevent injury to the tails of hunting or working dogs. It is also done for cosmetic reasons. The practice is now illegal in many countries.
Cropping is the removal of part of a dog’s ears. The practice is mostly for cosmetic purposes and most veterinarians say there are not good medical reasons for the surgery. Many countries have banned the procedure. Where permitted it is usually done only for certain breeds such as the Pit bull, Doberman Pinscher, Schnauzer, Great Dane, Boxer, and Cane Corso.
The withers on a dog are the highest point of its shoulder blades, just behind the base of its neck.
The Shetland Islands are 50 miles northeast of the Orkney Islands which in turn are 20 miles north of the coast of Scotland.
The Nordic countries are a region of Northern Europe and the North Atlantic. They include Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland. Scandanavia is a subregion of the Nordic countries and includes the countries of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.